In fact, the more pow erful nations made imperialism seem necessary and natural Demands Created by the Industrial Revolution As you have read, the Industrial Revolution resulted in a very great increase in the production of goods It also created the capitalist system of production. The Portuguese colony of Mozambique was fo be shared out between Germany and England, but the First World War stopped the plan and Germany lost all her colonies. For example, in a period of only 20 years, the population of the French Congo was reduced to one-third of its former size. The natural resources of the colonies came under the control of the imperialist countries and were exploited for their own benefit. In some countries, the entire agriculture was reduced to the growing of one or two crops For example, Cuba was reduced to the position of a sugar producing country and little else.
In the nineteenth century, the old ways of governing were still followed, even though they had outlived their usefulness. The first phase of the imperialist control and colonization of Asia, Africa and the Americas began in the sixteenth century. A new corollary was added to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 by the then U. European countries could find markets for their surplus goods in Asia and Africa where the Industrial Revolution had not taken place. Books listed below are just xerox copies. Low wages meant low purchasing power of the majority of the population and this also restricted their demand at home. In 1562, Sir John Hawkins, a rich English merchant, who was known to be very religious, went on his first voyage to Africa to bring slaves in a ship called Jesus The reigning English monarch, Elizabeth I, received a share of the profits that Hawkins made in selling the slaves that he had brought In the seventeenth century, a regular company received a charter from the King of England for purposes of trade in slaves Later, Spain gave the monopoly of slave trade with her possessions in America to England The share of the king in the profits from slave trade was fixed at 25 per cent Up to about the middle of the nineteenth century this trade continued.
The impoverishment of the people of the colonies and of other non-industrialized countries is a continuing consequence of imperialism. As industries grew, more and more raw materials were needed to fee those industries. Through this railway, Germany hoped to promote her economic interests in this region, and on to Iran and India France, England and Russia opposed this, but an agreement to divide the region was reached between Germany, France and England. Soon she obtained Dahomey pi esent Benin , the Ivory Coast and French Guinea By the year 1900, the French empii e extended further into the interior. Treaties were also signed between African rulers and chiefs, and the representatives of European governments or European companies and individuals which were later sanctioned by their respective governments. You have already read about the treaty which the United States signed with China in 1844 on the lines which some European countries had forced on China after the Opium War. Germany and Turkey, allies in the war, were defeated Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia Iraq and Arabia were taken away from Turkey and they passed under the control of England and France Thus, Germany as an imperialist nation was completely eliminated from Asia and other parts of the world.
Many princely states survived but they were free more in name than in fact. On these they could get raw materials out of the interior of the continents and send their manufactured products into new markets. The illegal opium trade was profitable to the British traders but did immense physical and moral damage to the Chinese. The Egyptians never reconciled themselves to the British conquest. They went into unknown or little known territories and brought back reports that often indicated opportunities for trade and development. Egypt Egypt was a province of the Turkish empire when the scramble for colonies began in the nineteenth century. Writers and speakers in England, France and Germany opened institutions to promote the idea of imperialism, and took great pride in calling their territories empires.
France, Russia, Britain and Germany gave loans to China to help her to meet this payment. So it became necessary to appease German ambition in North Africa There were many international crises and it appeared as if war would break out. The French at this time tried to occupy southernparts of Sudan but were forced to withdraw by the British France, however, was given a free hand to extend her control over wha t was known as western Sudan and the Sahara France occupied these areas after a long war of conquest. To prevent opposition from the Indian people, the British imposed laws to stifle the expression of public opinion They excluded Indians from responsible positions in government, and discriminated against them in other institutions and in social life. Imperialism in Central and Western Asia England and Russia were rivals in the struggle to control Central Asia, Iran Persia , Afghanistan and Tibet The Russian empire succeeded in annexing almost all of Central Asia in the second half of the nineteenth century The conflict between England and Russia came to a head over Iran and Afghanistan Besides some minor economic interests in these countries, Britain was mainly concerned about defending her conquests in India against the expansion of Russia in Central Asia.
You can read new edition too but old edition is mandatory. More territories were added to the West African conquests after 1900 and French West Africa came to include present Senegal, French Guinea, the Ivory Coast, Dahomey, Mauritania, French Sudan, Upper Volta and Niger Territory. These were purchased with the money made from British conquests in India and sold in England and Europe Fortunes were made by the officers of the Company India was known as the brightest jewel of the British empire. In some countries, the imperialists forced the cultivation of only one or two crops which they needed as raw materials for their industries Coal, iron, tin, gold, copper and, later, oil were other resources of Asia and Africa that European countries wanted to control. Soon after this, the Union of South Africa was formed consisting of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River Colony.
Ultimately, France agreed to give Germany 250,000 square kilometres of French Congo. Sometimes, goods produced in one country were sold in another country to pay for the goods from that country For example, the English promoted the cultivation of opium in India, they smuggled the opium from India into China and in this way paid for the goods that they bought in China. The Portuguese who controlled the trade with Asia were ousted from that position by the Dutch and the English who extended their control over Indonesia and India, respectively. I have uploaded only essential books. In 1922, though she still retained her rights over the Suez and many other concessions, Britain was forced to recognize Egypt as an independent sovereign state Sudan, or what was earlier known as Egyptian Sudan, was jointly exploited by Egypt and Britain. The United States took control of the finances of the Dominican Republic which she retained for three decades and occupied that country in 1916 for eight years. Italy-Ethiopia Like Germany, Italy entered the colonial race late.
When the demand for slaves in America increased, they were sent directly from Africa by the traders. But in every case, war was avoided and agreements reached between them as to who will get which part of Africa. China resented this rind the two countries went to war, which ended in victory for Japan China gave Korea her independence and ceded Formosa and other islands to Japan. In 1903, the United States financed and organized a revolt in Panama and landed her troops there. Generally speaking, the first phase of imperialism and colonization came to an end by the close of the eighteenth century.